Female fertility in India is of much interest to medical professionals as well as society at large. The focus is on the lifestyle of female fertility that influences reproduction.

Factors affecting the fertility rate in India include a higher level of education among females, increased mobility, late marriages, financial independence, along with better access to family planning methods and high contraceptive prevalence rate, the declining infant mortality rate, the declining neonatal mortality rate, marriage, contraception as well as abortion, post-partum infecundability, development and also fertility, differences within states, religion as well as fertility, socio-economic factors along with population growth.

Beyond age, several lifestyle-related factors such as excess body weight, obesity, smoking, intense sporting activity, alcohol consumption, drug addiction, or abuse of other substances have an adverse influence on female fertility.

India has no doubt seen a dramatic shift in cultural attitudes on reproductive choices and no doubt women’s empowerment in recent years has had much impact on reproduction. Now, Indian women opt to freeze their eggs to preserve their fertility and also avoid the pressures of the so-called ‘appropriate timing’ for motherhood. This tendency is a direct result of India’s evolving social, economic, as well as cultural backdrop, which gave birth to the concept of reproductive freedom.

Indian society has of course traditionally placed much importance on early marriage and childbirth. Women have been expected to settle down and start families at a young age, at the expense of their personal and professional goals. With the advent of globalization, urbanization, and also expanded educational options for women, the landscape has transformed. More women are rather pursuing higher education, establishing careers, and also becoming financially independent before considering marriage and also motherhood.

Several factors affect women’s fertility, like lifestyle-related factors, in particular. Due to societal as well as professional pressure, childbearing age in women has gradually shifted to the 30s.

Lifestyle Factors Influencing Female Fertility in India
Lifestyle Factors Influencing Female Fertility in India

Factors affecting fertility rate in India include:

  • Higher level of education among females
  • Increased mobility
  • Financial independence
  • Late marriages
  • Better access to family planning methods/high contraceptive prevalence rate

Judging by place of residence, urban women are rather more prone to experience infertility in a few regions, which might be due to the differentials in the environment as well as lifestyles. Also, factors like a vegetarian diet, obesity, overweight, and thyroid were strongly associated with primary infertility.

Women must understand their ovarian reserve before deciding to delay pregnancy. 

Multiple factors affecting fertility of an individual and age

In present times, more and more Indian women in Metro Cities are delaying their pregnancy owing to their careers and competitive jobs. While not all women may rather suffer from fertility problems with growing age, recent trends and analysis show otherwise. Today women are at a risk of infertility due to their lifestyle choices.

The present literature review does encompass multiple lifestyle factors and tends to place infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males as well as females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest as well as the amount of research done in this area does show that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility. Lifestyle female fertility cannot simply be overlooked.

Stress happens to be a prominent part of any society, be it physical, social, or psychological. Infertility itself is stressful, on account of the societal pressures, testing, diagnosis, treatments, failures, unfulfilled desires, and even fiscal costs with which it is associated. 


Lifestyle factors, including age when starting a family, nutrition, weight management, exercise, cigarette smoking, psychological stress recreational and prescription drug use, alcohol as well as caffeine consumption, environmental and occupational exposures, preventative care, and other behaviors are modifiable and may impact fertility.

The evidence does highlight that age can play a large role in determining fertility. Attempting pregnancy before the age of 30 for women and before 35 for men may in fact provide the highest chances of success. 

Female fertility in India does depend upon lifestyle factors of both men and women.